Agile project management method The agile approach favours a more organic, responsive, flexible pm approach compared to the waterfall pm method. It places bigger emphasis on communication and collaboration, team self-organization, flexibility to adapt to emerging business realities.
Basic research Pathbreaking innovations never arrive fully formed. They always begin with the discovery of some new phenomenon. No one could guess how Einstein’s discoveries would shape the world. To his point, Einstein’s discoveries now play essential roles in technologies ranging from nuclear energy to computer technologies and GPS satellites. Some large enterprises, like IBM and Procter & Gamble, have the resources to invest in labs to pursue basic research. Others, like Experian’s DataLabs, encourage researchers and engineers to go to conferences and hold internal seminars on what they learn. Google invites about 30 top researchers to spend a sabbatical year at the company and funds 250 academic projects annually.
Brainstorming Brainstorming is an idea generation technique. It combines a relaxed, informal approach to problem solving with lateral thinking. It encourages people to come up with thoughts and ideas that can, at first, seem a bit crazy. Some of these ideas can be crafted into original, creative solutions to a problem, while others can spark even more ideas. Brainstorming has other potential benefits, such as enhancing the enjoyment of group work and improving morale. It may also serve as a useful exercise for team building.
Brainwriting is a variation of Brainstorming where ideas are written down by individuals, and buzz groups.
Breakthrough innovation Sometimes we run into a well-defined problem that’s just devilishly hard to solve. In cases like these, we need to explore unconventional skill domains, such as adding a marine biologist to a team of chip designers. Open innovation strategies can be highly effective in this regard, because they help to expose the problem to diverse skill domains.
Business incubator A business incubator is a company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space. Business incubators differ from research and technology parks in their dedication to startup and early-stage companies. Research and technology parks, on the other hand, tend to be large-scale projects that house everything from corporate, government or university labs to very small companies. Most research and technology parks do not offer business assistance services, which are the hallmark of a business incubation program. However, many research and technology parks house incubation programs.
CAD Computer Aided Design, a Technology that allows designers and engineers to use computers for their design work. Also termed CAID (industrial design), and CAE (engineering).
Cause and effect diagram (also called the “Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram”) a participatory exercise in the shape of a fishbone which explores the links between the effects and the possible causes of an issue.
Clusters Geographically close groups of interconnected companies and associated institutions in a particular field, linked by common technologies and skills. They normally exist within a geographic area where ease of communication, logistics and personal interaction is possible. Clusters are normally concentrated in regions and sometimes in a single town.
CMS A content management system (CMS) is a program used to create a framework for the content of a Web site. With most CMSs, the framework can be customized with a “skin” that defines the graphic design. This approach is opposite to defining the graphic design first, then coding the functionality second. Whereas the majority of cost of a Web site is in the functionality, the CMS approach is often significantly more cost effective.
Continuous improvement (kaizen, total quality) Kaizen is the Japanese word for "continual improvement". In business, kaizen refers to activities that continuously improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain
The continuous improvement policy higlights the importance of constantly introducing small incremental changes in a business in order to improve quality and/or efficiency. This approach assumes that employees are the best people to identify room for improvement, since they see the processes in action all the time. (Source:
Copyright Copryright, symbolized "©" - is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time. Generally, it is "the right to copy", but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the work, who may financially benefit from it, and other, related rights. It is an intellectual property form (like the patent, the trademark, and the Trade secret) applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete.
Corporate Social Responibility (CSR) The European Commission has defined CSR as the responsibility of enterprises for their impact on society. CSR is supposed to be company led. Public authorities can play a supporting role through a smart mix of voluntary policy measures and, where necessary, complementary regulation. Companies can become socially responsible by: following the law; integrating social, environmental, ethical, consumer, and human rights concerns into their business strategy and operations.
Creativity Creativity is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts. There has been much empirical study in psychology and cognitive science of the processes through which creativity occurs. Interpretation of the results of these studies has led to several possible explanations of the sources and methods of creativity.  (Source:
Design thinking Design thinking is a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success. (Tim Brown, CEO of IDEO). Design thinking utilizes elements from the designer's toolkit like empathy and experimentation to arrive at innovative solutions. By using design thinking, you make decisions based on what future customers really want instead of relying only on historical data or making risky bets based on instinct instead of evidence.
Disruptive innovation A technology whose application significantly affects the way a market functions. An example of a modern disruptive innovation is the Internet, which significantly altered the way companies did business and which negatively impacted companies that were unwilling to adopt it. A disruptive innovation is differentiated from a disruptive technology in that it focuses on the use of the technology rather than the technology itself.
Innovating your products won’t help — you have to innovate your business model. The theory goes that a smaller company with fewer resources can unseat an established, successful business by targeting segments of the market that have been neglected by the incumbent, typically because it is focusing on more profitable areas. As the larger business concentrates on improving products and services for its most demanding customers, the small company is gaining a foothold at the bottom end of the market, or tapping a new market the incumbent had failed to notice.This type of start-up usually enters the market with new or innovative technologies that it uses to deliver products or services better suited to the incumbent’s overlooked customers – at a lower price. Then it moves steadily upmarket until it is delivering the performance that the established business’s mainstream customers expect, while keeping intact the advantages that drove its early success. Disruption happens when the incumbent’s mainstream customers start taking up the start-up’s products or services in volume.
Experimental development Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research, and/or practical experience. This is to produce new materials, products or devices; to installing new processes, systems and services; or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.
Flow In lean production: Movement of goods or services along the value stream from raw materials to the customer without backflow, stoppages, or waste.
In psychology it is the mental state of operation in which a person in an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. Proposed by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, the positive psychology concept has been widely referenced across a variety of fields
Innovation management It is a combination of the management of innovation processes, and change management. It refers both to product, business process, and organizational innovation. Innovation management allows the organization to respond to external or internal opportunities, and use its creativity to introduce new ideas, processes or products. By utilizing innovation management tools, management can trigger and deploy the creative capabilities of the work force for the continuous development of a company.
Innovation processes Innovation processes can either be pushed or pulled through development. A pushed process is based on existing or newly invented technology, that the organization has access to, and tries to find profitable applications for. A pulled process is based on finding areas where customers needs are not met, and then find solutions to those needs
Innovation tools Common tools include brainstorming, virtual prototyping, product lifecycle management, idea management, TRIZ, Phase–gate model, project management, product line planning and portfolio management.
Innovation Union Innovation Union is the European Union strategy embedded into the Europe 2020 Initiative,  to create an innovation-friendly environment that makes it easier for great ideas to be turned into products and services that will bring our economy growth and jobs.
Intellectual property (IP) It refers to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are the rights granted to the creators of IP, and include trademarks, copyright, patents, industrial design rights, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.Artistic works including music and literature, as well as discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.
Know-how Expert skill, information, or body of knowledge that (1) imparts an ability to cause a desired result, (2) is not readily available, and is (3) outside the public domain.
Know how may include tangible material (such as blueprints, formulas, instructions, patterns, specifications, and trade-secrets) or intangibles (such as manufacturing practices, marketing concepts, quality control, and testing techniques) which are not common knowledge.
In technology transfer agreements, know how is the most valuable factor. In legal terms, it may be defined as "any industrial information and technique likely to assist in the manufacture or processing of goods or materials." In the context of industrial property (now generally viewed as intellectual property - IP), know-how is a component in the transfer of technology in national and international environments, co-existing with or separate from other IP rights such as patents, trademarks and copyright and is an economic asset
Knowledge Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, learning, communication, association and reasoning. The term knowledge is also used to mean the confident understanding of a subject with the ability to use it for a specific purpose if appropriate.
Knowledge management Knowledge management ('KM') comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute Knowledge. It refers to a multidisciplinary approach to achieving organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge. Many large companies, public institutions and non-profit organisations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their business strategy, IT, or human resource management departments.
Knowledge management strategies Systematic competence management, making knowledge-sharing as a key roles in employees' job description, storytelling, cross-project learning, after-action reviews, knowledge map, expert directories (to company’s yellow pages), best practice transfer, knowledge fairs, competence management (systematic evaluation and planning of competences of individual organisation members), proximity & infrastructure (the physical situation of employees can be either conducive or obstructive to knowledge sharing), job-shadowing, mentoring, master–apprentice relationship, collaborative software technologies (wikis, shared bookmarking, blogs, social software, etc.), knowledge repositories (databases, bookmarking engines, internal e-learning surfaces etc.), measuring and reporting intellectual capital (a way of making explicit knowledge for companies), knowledge brokers (some organisational members take on responsibility for a specific "field" and act as first reference on a specific subject), inter-project knowledge transfer.
Knowledge map The map of knowledge repositories within a company accessible by all
Madrid system for the international registration of marks The Madrid system for the international registration of marks, also conveniently known as the Madrid system or simply Madrid, is the primary international system for facilitating the registration of trademarks in multiple jurisdictions around the world.The Madrid system provides a centrally administered system of obtaining a bundle of trademark registrations in separate jurisdictions, all of which are based on an "international registration". Madrid provides a mechanism for obtaining trademark protection in many countries around the world, which is more effective than seeking protection separately in each individual country or jurisdiction of interest.
Mind map A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. It is used to generate, visualise, structure and classify ideas and as an aid in study, organisation, problem solving, decision making, and writing. (
Open innovation Open Innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as the firms look to advance their technology. Open Innovation combines internal and external ideas into architectures and systems whose requirements are defined by a business model.
Organisational culture Organisational culture refers to the basic tacit assumptions about how the world is and ought to be that a group of people share and that determines their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and, their overt behaviour.
(Source: Schein, Edgar: Three Levels of Organisational Culture, viewed at 07.05.2008)
Outsourcing innovation The benefits that business leaders see in outsourcing R&D include the following: the outsourcing firm may have more expertise, the business may have a shortage of manpower, outsourced R&D can be less expensive, and it may mean a faster time to market for a product or service.
The most common type of R&D function that is outsourced is technology. Organizations that do outsourcing R&D work for businesses include the following: universities, government labs, independent R&D organizations, suppliers, and other companies.
Patent A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. Patents are a form of intellectual property.
Patent cooperation treaty The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty, concluded in 1970. It provides a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions in each of its Contracting States. A patent application filed under the PCT is called an international application or PCT application. A single filing of an international application is made with a Receiving Office (RO) in one language. It then results in a search performed by an International Searching Authority (ISA), accompanied with a written opinion regarding the patentability of the invention which is the subject of the application. It is optionally followed by a preliminary examination, performed by an International Preliminary Examining Authority (IPEA). Finally, the examination (if provided by national law) and grant procedures are handled by the relevant national or regional authorities. The PCT does not lead to the grant of an "international patent", which does not exist.
Pecha Kucha It is a presentation style in which 20 slides are shown for 20 seconds each (6 minutes and 40 seconds in total). Pecha Kucha keeps presentations concise and fast-paced.
Phase-gate modell Phase.gate process or waterfall process is a project management technique in which an initiative or project (e.g., new product development, software development, process improvement, business change) is divided into distinct stages or phases, separated by decision points (known as gates). At each gate, continuation is decided by (typically) a manager, steering committee, or governance board. The decision is made on forecasts and information available at the time, including the business case, risk analysis, and availability of necessary resources (e.g., money, people with correct competencies).
Project management By definition of the project management institute, ‘project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements’.
Quality management It is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance.
R&D Systematic activity combining both basic and applied research, and aimed at discovering solutions to problems or creating new goods and knowledge. R&D may result in ownership of intellectual property such as patents.
Research and technology parks Research and technology parks tend to be large-scale projects that house everything from corporate, government or university labs to very small companies. Most research and technology parks do not offer business assistance services, which are the hallmark of a business incubation program. However, many research and technology parks house incubation programs.
Risk analysis How risky an innovation proves to be depends in great measure on the choices people make in using it. Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risk management’s objective is to assure uncertainty does not deflect the endeavor from the business goals
Risk capital The money that a person allocates to investing in high-risk securities.
Scrum SCRUM is one of today’s leading agile project management methodologies. It’s a framework for dealing with complex works. . It emphasizes constant improvement, keeping the product integrated and in tested state at all times. Instead of working with long project phases, the project lifetime is divided into shorter work cadences, known as ‘sprints’, of one or two weeks, one month cycles. All the project management phases are mixed into each sprint (design, implementation, testing, and shipping).
Semi structured interviews A semi-structured interview is a method of research used in the social sciences. While a structured interview has a formalized, limited set questions, a semi-structured interview is flexible, allowing new questions to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says. The interviewer in a semi-structured interview generally has a framework of themes to be explored.
Six Sigma processes Six Sigma is a method that provides organizations tools to improve the capability of their business processes.  It seeks to improve the quality of the output of a process by identifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, mainly empirical, statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization who are experts in these methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has specific value targets, for example: reduce process cycle time, reduce pollution, reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction, and increase profits.
Startup A startup company (startup or start-up) is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged, fast-growing business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around an innovative product, service, process or a platform. A startup is usually a company designed to effectively develop and validate a scalable business model.
Storytelling New forms of media are creating new ways for people to record, express and consume stories.Contemporary storytelling is also widely used to address educational and marketing objectives in an interactive way. It does not create an imaginary barrier between the speaker and the listeners; this is part of what distinguishes storytelling from the forms of theatre, movies, etc. Good stories raise more attention, encourage the active imagination of the listeners and facilitate the memorisation of the message.
Sustainable development Sustainable development: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs .
Sustaining innovation Most innovation happens here, because most of the time we are seeking to get better at what we’re already doing. We want to improve existing capabilities in existing markets, and we have a pretty clear idea of what problems need to be solved and what skill domains are required to solve them. For these types of problems, conventional strategies like strategic roadmapping, traditional R&D labs, and using acquisitions to bring new resources and skill sets into the organization are usually effective.
Tacit knowledge cAlso called informal knowledge. Unwritten, unspoken, and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge held by practically every normal human being, based on his or her emotions, experiences, insights, intuition, observations and internalized information. Tacit knowledge is integral to the entirety of a person's consciousness, is acquired largely through association with other people, and requires joint or shared activities to be imparted from on to another. Like the submerged part of an iceberg it constitutes the bulk of what one knows, and forms the underlying framework that makes explicit knowledge possible. Concept of tacit knowledge was introduced by the Hungarian philosopher-chemist Michael Polanyi (1891-1976) in his 1966 book 'The Tacit Dimension.'
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Technology The knowledge embedded in products and processes, and the knowledge of creating, producing, reproducing, and using these products and processes. (
Trade secret Business information that is the subject of reasonable efforts to preserve confidentiality and has value because it is not generally known in the trade. Such confidential information will be protected against those who obtain access through improper methods or by a breach of confidence. Infringement of a trade secret is a type of unfair competition.
Trademark (trade mark) A trademark or trade mark (represented by the symbol TM) or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator of some kind which is used by an individual, business organization or other legal entity to identify uniquely the source of its products and/or services to consumers, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities. A trademark is a type of intellectual property, and typically a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or a combination of these elements.
Triple helix” models of innovation (TH) The “Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations” (TH) as attempts to find surplus value in bringing industrial innovation closer to public R&D. Whereas a firm plays central role in the model of Open Innovation model, the TH adds multi-centeredness: in addition to firms, universities and (e.g., regional) governments can take leading roles in innovation eco-systems. In addition to the (transversal) technology transfer at each moment of time, one can focus on the dynamics in the feedback loops. Under specifiable conditions, feedback loops can be turned into feedforward ones that drive innovation eco-systems towards self-organization and the auto-catalytic generation of new options. The generation of redundancy—the Triple Helix indicator—can be used as a measure of unrealized but technologically feasible options given a historical configuration.
TRIZ "TRIZ" is the (Russian) acronym for the "Theory of Inventive Problem Solving. RIZ is an international science of creativity that relies on the study of the patterns of problems and solutions, not on the spontaneous and intuitive creativity of individuals or groups. More than three million patents have been analyzed to discover the patterns that predict breakthrough solutions to problems, and these have been codified within TRIZ. TRIZ is spreading into corporate use across several parallel paths – it is increasingly common in Six Sigma processes, in project management and risk management systems, and in organizational innovation initiatives.
Types of innovation There are as many ways to innovate as there are types of problems to solve. There is no one “true” path to innovation. Yet, there are four main types of innovation strategies: sustaining innovation, breakthrough innovation, disruptive innovation and basic research.
Utility model A utility model is a statutory monopoly granted for a limited time in exchange for an inventor providing sufficient teaching of his or her invention to permit a person of ordinary skill in the relevant art to perform the invention. The rights conferred by utility Model laws are very similar to those granted by patent laws, but are more suited to what may be considered as "incremental inventions". Terms such as "petty patent", "innovation patent", "minor patent", and "small patent" may also be considered to fall within the definition of "utility Model". (Source:
Virtual prototyping Digital prototyping gives conceptual design, engineering, manufacturing, and sales and marketing departments the ability to virtually explore a complete product before it’s built.
Waterfall project management method This pm approach moves along a linear timeline, from stage to stage. The steps are well defined and agreed on (between the developers and the customer) right at the beginning of the project life cycle, then the development goes on step by step; only after concluding the previous stage can the team start to work on the next stage.


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